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International Journal of Automotive Technology > Volume 22(6); 2021 > Article
International Journal of Automotive Technology 2021;22(6): 1651-1664.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-021-0142-z
Christopher Fernaldy Kusuma1, Bentang Arief Budiman1 , Ignatius Pulung Nurprasetio1, Metha Islameka1, Abdul Hakim Masyhur1, Muhammad Aziz2, Iman Kartolaksono Reksowardojo1
1Institut Teknologi Bandung
2The University of Tokyo
PDF Links Corresponding Author.  Bentang Arief Budiman , Email. bentang@ftmd.itb.ac.id
Electric buses are usually designed with various energy management features to overcome the limited cruising range problem. This paper reveals the impact of different energy management systems applied in the electric bus intended for rapid transit usage on battery state of charge and energy consumption. Different systems can be distinguished based on combinations of range extender usages and regenerative braking strategies. Simulations have been done using models developed from the fundamental theory of vehicle engineering and the bus's design parameters. The results show that the minimum energy consumption can be achieved by an energy management system, adopting a serial regenerative braking strategy without the use of a range extender. It is also found that the serial regenerative braking strategy can save up to 15 % energy compared to the absence of the regenerative braking system. In comparison, the absence of a range extender contributes to a 7 % reduction in energy consumption. However, considering the range anxiety of the driver, the designed electric bus for rapid transit is recommended to utilize both the range extender and parallel regenerative braking strategy. The developed model in this work can be implemented to redesign or further optimize specific components and operating procedures of the bus.
Key Words: Electric bus, Range extender, Regenerative braking, Energy management system, Battery state of charge, Energy consumption
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