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International Journal of Automotive Technology > Volume 23(2); 2022 > Article
International Journal of Automotive Technology 2022;23(2): 389-401.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12239-022-0036-8
Amr Shaaban, Adel Moneb Elsabbagh
Ain Shams University
PDF Links Corresponding Author.  Amr Shaaban , Email. amr.ahmed@eng.asu.edu.eg
This paper examines the crashworthiness optimization of an impact attenuator constructed of polyurethane (PUR) foam used in racing vehicles. Different design variables are investigated such as the mechanical properties associated with each PUR density and the attenuator topology. Analytical method is employed to model the behavior of the PUR, while finite element (FE)-simulation using LS-Dyna4.3© is conducted to evaluate the performance of the attenuator. The evaluation criteria in this study are the average and maximum acceleration throughout the impact period. The FE-results reveal that the PUR of 80 kg/m3 is the most suitable, and experimental test is conducted for verification. The design of the attenuator is then modified by adding an internal cavity to provide a homogeneous cross-sectional area along the attenuator length. Size optimization analysis is carried out to attain stable acceleration values with the least average. Two approaches are considered for the design of the internal cavity, namely constant thickness and varied thickness. Various designs, each of specific cavity size and PUR density, are tested and the results are presented against each other. The varied thickness design with 30 mm base thickness and 145 kg/m3 has proved to be the optimum design.
Key Words: Crashworthiness design, Crashworthiness optimization, Polyurethane foam, Energy absorbing structures, Impact attenuator, Mean crash force
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